0000016410 00000 n Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are one of the most-destructive insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, including vegetables and ornamentals (Helyer and Brobyn 1992, Jensen 2000a, Kirk and Terry 2003, Lewis 1997,).Direct plant damage associated with western flower thrips is a consequence of their feeding. Western flower thrips, formally limited to western North America, has become virtually cosmopolitan since the 1970s. WFT is the most prevalent species of thrips in Massachusetts greenhouses. The eggs of the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) are laid in leaves, flower petals and in the soft parts of stalks. The antennae are eight segmented. Larvae are very tiny and difficult to distinguish without magnification. Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Western flower thrips (WFT) are the most important insect pest of horticultural greenhouse-grown crops worldwide. Adults have feathery wings and vary from yellow to dark brown. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) originated in western North America and has since become a major pest of vegetables, fruit and ornamental crops across the US and around the world.F. Natural infestations typically control the F. 0000054177 00000 n 0000021478 00000 n Western flower thrips. 0000012270 00000 n 0000018222 00000 n The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) develops in six stages: egg, two larval instars, prepupa, pupa, and finally the adult insect. In higher elevations, females are black. 0000062945 00000 n In spring, there is an increase in the number of flower thrips on alfalfa, weeds, ice plant, and other vegetation and move from these hosts when they are cut, stop flowering, or dry up. This stage can be tackled with parasitic nematodes. Often the first sign that western flower thrips is present in a crop is the failure of insecticide to control thrips. In early spring, if overwintering sites are disturbed or dry up, thrips migrate to flowering trees and plants and deposit eggs in the tender portions of … Western flower thrips has a punching-sucking feeding habit, using the mandible to punch a hole into the host and then inserting the maxillae into the opening. Oviposition blisters 3. In this region, western flower thrips damages not only apples but also many horticultural and field crops, such as tomatoes and cotton. 0000013748 00000 n Thrips. Larvae rese… The maxillae then ingest the fluids from the cells, but not directly from the vascular tissue. There are thousands of species of thrips which feed on a wide variety of plants and insects. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) originated in western North America and has since become a major pest of vegetables, fruit and ornamental crops across the US and around the world.F. Figure 1. 0000113149 00000 n 106); however, the western flower thrips is the more important vector. 1. 0000002984 00000 n The western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande is an important pest of tomato plants, causing direct and indirect damages. WFT have piercing-sucking mouthparts, but they do not feed exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes. 2. Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips, is a representative of the order Thysanoptera. Advertisement. 0000003375 00000 n By continuing to use this site you accept our privacy and cookie policy. Antennae: 8 segments. The female varies from yellow to dark brown, and has a more rounded abdomen. 0000009227 00000 n 0000054512 00000 n WFT damage potential is due not only to its ability to directly damage greenhouse-grown crops by feeding on leaves and flowers, but also because they may vector destructive tospoviruses. Thrips cause injury to lettuce by puncturing leaves and sucking the plant sap.Punctured leaves take on a silvery appearance that eventually turns to brown scarring and can be confused with windburn or blown sand damage. Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Advertisement. A suggested limit is 25 thrips/ 50 fruit (PYO) and 5 thrips/ 50 fruit (shipping) in New Brunswick, in Quebec- 2- 10% of fruit with bronzing. 0000005248 00000 n 0000005910 00000 n 0000043091 00000 n Pest description and crop damage Adult western flower thrips (WFT) are very small (about 0.04 inch long at maturity), slender insects with fringed wings. Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Description: Western flower thrips are slender, very small insects, about 0.03 inch long when mature. 0000005861 00000 n It is now established as a major pest in most parts of the world. The female varies from yellow to dark brown, and has a more rounded abdomen. shoots, buds, and flower … 0000056380 00000 n 0000065547 00000 n There are a number of predators and parasites that attack western flower thrip. The western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] is an invasive pest insect in agriculture. (a) Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (b) Common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei (c) Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis. Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips, is a key pest of glasshouses, greenhouses and polytunnels.. Thrips can be difficult for growers to detect due to their small size and tendency for hiding within the concealed parts of the plant. For flower thrips on gladiolus: Mix 1 tablespoon Lysol household cleaner with 1 gallon water. These crops are grown outdoors but sheltered by clear polythene tunnels during the growing season from about April to October. 0000001276 00000 n Thrips (Order: Thysanoptera; Family: Thripidae) Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca (Hinds)) Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) Flower thrips (Frankliniella tritici (Fitch)) Melon thrips (Thrips palmi (Karny)) Description: Adult: The adults are tiny insects, generally measuring only 1 to 2 mm in length. 0000020084 00000 n Females are about 1/25 of an inch long and have many color forms. Western flower thrips overwinter as adults in weeds, grasses, alfalfa, and other hosts, either in the orchard floor or nearby. What are the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis? WFT have piercing-sucking mouthparts, but they do not feed exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes. This insect pest has been included in greenhouse pest control brochures since 1949. However, these will attack only larval thrips and therefore are not effective for preventing the damage caused by the ovipositing female. The western flower thrip is widely distributed throughout the United States. They have thin bodies and vary in color from near black to TSWV is a tospovirus spread by western flower thrips, onion thrips (see Fact Sheet no. Soak gladiolus corms in the liquid and plant while still wet to prevent thrips. It is ideally suited for the control of fungus gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.) The male is always pale yellow and has a narrower abdomen. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major pest of semi-protected strawberry crops in the UK. Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, is still one of the most destructive insect pests of commercial greenhouses feeding on a wide variety of horticultural crops. The eggs are inserted into soft plant tissues, including flowers, leaves, stems and fruit. -Ionone Decreases the Survival Rate of Western Flower Thrips Without Exhibiting Insecticidal Activity To examine the effects of apocarotenoids on herb ivores, we released adult female western flower thrips onto micro-tom tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves that were treated with -cyclocitral, -ionone, or … Predaceous mites can be purchased and released to kill thrips. These vary from pale yellow thorax and abdomen to yellow thorax and dark abdomen to … 0000025048 00000 n OOrganic (OMRI-approved) products available.HHomeowner products available. In the following decades it has spread with the horticultural trade throughout North America and the world (Kirk and Terry 2003; CABI 2014). Adults have 4 feathery wings and vary in color from yellow to dark brown; nymphs are … The bodies of adult thrips can be yellow, orange, brown, or black. It feeds on a number of plants and occasionally damages tree fruit. The females of F. williamsi are generally paler yellow with lighter-colored body setae than in the western flower thrips. Female adult western flower thrips live up to 30 days and lay 2-10 eggs per day. Only those biological controls that target the adult female have any chance of reducing damage, and they must respond quickly when adult female thrips first move into the blossoms. 8. Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Description: Western flower thrips are slender, very small insects, about 0.03 inch long when mature. Even though western flower thrips can transmit plant viruses to some crops, apples are not affected. As the name suggests the wings of these thrips have dark and light bands, and can be easily distinguished from the western flower thrips. Adults have two sets of narrow, clear, nearly veinless wings that have dark, hairy, fringes. Western flower thrips. However, western flower thrips is the predominant species and the most difficult to control. 0000054893 00000 n The eggs of the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) are laid in leaves, flower petals and in the soft parts of stalks. The Situation: In southern California, the native western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis is the most common vector responsible for transmission of an exotic plant virus, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). These vary from pale yellow thorax and abdomen to yellow thorax and dark abdomen to very dark color throughout their body. and thrips species that spend a portion of their life cycle in the soil or potting media. Out-of-doors it is a pest of several field and vegetable crops and also tree fruits. Attacks a very wide range of vegetables, weeds and ornamentals; Insects are tiny and yellow to brown in colour; Can transmit a range of tospoviruses, including Tomato spotted wilt virus, which reduces tomato, capsicum, and eggplant quality and yield; Comparison between adult western flower thrips (right) and adult Echinothrips (left). Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips, is a representative of the order Thysanoptera. WFT feed on plant tissue by rasping and sucking sap (Childers and Achor, 1995). The apex of the second antennal segment is simple. They are inserted into the plant tissue with a saw-like ovipositor. It remained confined to western North America (west of 100°W longitude) until the 1960s. They can be mistaken for leafhopper and Campylomma nymphs, which are about the same size and color. Females puncture the fruit … 0000016890 00000 n Western flower thrips will … Attacks the foliage and/or flowers of many glasshouse plants, especially tomato, cucumber, streptocarpus, African violet, fuchsia, gloxinia, achimenes, pelargonium, cyclamen, chrysanthemum, verbena, Primula obconica and Impatiens. Western Flower Thrips has several crop hosts including: peanuts, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, peppers, peas, onions, apples and grapes. Adults have 4 feathery wings and vary in color from yellow to dark brown; nymphs are … These nymphs look like their parents but wingless. This IPM-based program involves monitoring, early treatment, good spray coverage and good housekeeping practices. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. The life cycle consists of five stages: egg, larval, prepupal, pupal and adult. Western flower thrips may be confused with Frankliniella williamsi (Hood), which primarily infests grasses, especially corn. western flower thrips in tomato. 0000050828 00000 n Western flower thrips acquire the virus as first instar larvae, and retain it for the remainder of their lives. 4. Direct damage results in lost yield and/or inferior prices, as damage is unsightly - common in roses, strawberries, beans, capsicum and cucumbers. Adult male WFT are light yellow, while adult female WFT are a little larger than the males and vary in color from light yellow, yellow with brown splotches, to dark brown. In the 1970s and early 1980s, this species spread throughout North America (Beshear 1983). Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, are likely the most serious pest of greenhouse crops in the world. 57 0 obj <> endobj xref 57 49 0000000016 00000 n They are generally white when young but brown or black when mature. Thrips - General Life Cycle . Some good predators include pirate bugs, lacewings, and lady bugs. 0000005637 00000 n Immature Orius nymphs, that are orange-colored and have a pungent odor, are also effective predators. Thrips has an additional weapon in its arsenal: the pupae are often in the soil. Pesticides are often used to control western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) in horticultural crops. Western flower thrips feed on lettuce and vector plant viruses. Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images. Thrips rasp the surface of the fruit as they feed, and their feeding weakens flowers and fruit stems. Western flower thrips overwinter as adults in weeds, grasses, alfalfa, and other hosts, either in the orchard floor or nearby. One naturally occurring predator is the minute pirate bug (Orius spp. Eggs: Yellowish eggs … This species is a key pest in the greenhouse production of flowers and vegetables. Wings are clear and yellow like those of the female. 0000017271 00000 n 0000057058 00000 n Western Flower Thrips Management The BotaniGard® Greenhouse Insect Management Program is an effective way to control western flower thrips in greenhouse ornamental and vegetable production. H�\��n�@��~�9&�����B�g#q�-� {�ZZ�e�o�SSV�Z$3�O���r����vt��Z���m��v}��N��y嚶�(חc_����~�eߝ��r�ʟi�6w��n���X�߇&m��~m��{�7i��O�����>�*�s���&��c�c���,}Vn��>�"v���������P,���l�:]�U������g����8H���|�oS\�r���u�~�ƙjA�|՚z ��U�úiI�5Ӓ4륥Xz�����s芺���Z��ll^��ި ��̞�̞�̞�%i2{0y. So there's no time to lose! 0000056689 00000 n Eggs: Yellowish eggs … Western Flower Thrips. The babies of the western flower thrips also called as nymphs. Pupa is hidden in soil (or curled leaves for Chilli thrips… Many feed on plant tissues as well as pollen. 0000004657 00000 n 0000017756 00000 n 0000018808 00000 n Frankliniella occidentalis– known as Western Flower Thrips or Californian Thrips, is a small insect originating on the West Coast of North America, which spread through much of Europe in the 1980’s as a consequence of the international trade in plants. Thrips rasp the surface of the fruit as they feed, and … 0000004050 00000 n 0000007521 00000 n Western Flower Thrips' (WFT) function as a vector for the topsoviruses tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and impatiens necrotic wilt virus (INWV). Reflective mulches can help to hide your plants from thrips. 0000010581 00000 n 2.1. 0000015122 00000 n Because the immature stages usually remain on one plant and do not move to other plants, most of the spread of the virus is by the adult stage as they fly or are carried by wind currents. Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) are very small and slender insects with fringed wings and are a common insect found in greenhouses and gardens.Thrips range in color from translucent white to yellow to green to black and brown. Indirect damage by thrips as a vector of TSWV is common in lettuce, capsicum and tomato. • Use reduced-risk insecticides to conserve minute pirate bug, Orius insidiosus, populations in pepper. h�b```b``]�������A���b�,k88��.��|?��P�CC�CNA"+_���؀������= '-��c8����#����+j����a^.��sm���T�x$MB>^a?��c����(V�Q��M�sв�?o=}۶�`�5_9㒚ژ9DV.V�:��z�����|��׶ؤ5.^��o`��ƴ���+--L3��D�- �L��H1 Pre-pupa 6. In the past 30 years, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. 1980S, this species spread throughout North America ( west of 100°W longitude ) until the 1960s with Frankliniella (... 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